The Art of Weaving Textiles for Clothing and More
Although the process of weaving is a rather intensive one, we can trace its history back as far as prehistoric times. Researchers have been able to find traces of woven fragments from Egypt to Switzerland. Weaving is primarily used to create clothing textiles, although it can also be used to produce other items such as baskets and rugs. In its most basic form, it involves intertwining thread vertically [the warp] and horizontally [the weft] in turn. By repeating this technique many times over, the weaver is eventually left with a woven piece of cloth. The look and feel of the fabrics depends on the type of pattern chosen. Some common ones used today include satin weaves, twill, and the plain weave.
Although some types of weaving can be done by hand, even in very early times the practice was historically done with a loom. A basic loom holds the warp tautly so that the weft can be intertwined. During Neolithic times, it was an activity done within the home. Later as demand for clothing textiles grew, weaving started to become commercialized. The practice increased in prominence by around 700 AD during the rise of Islam. Vast quantities of cloth were required to create the long, conservative clothing worn by followers of the religion. The practice of using a loom, operated by a pedal spread throughout Europe, especially in Flanders. When people started immigrating to Colonial-era America, weaving techniques were not immediately continued in this new land. Instead, the new Americans were often dependent on imported goods, including cloth, to be brought over from England or other parts of Europe.
While ancient cultures wove with plant fibers, by the medieval times, it was common practice to use woven wool among the poorer classes, while wealthier people enjoyed fabrics made from woven cotton or silk. Since British wool was not allowed to be exported, settlers had to make do with alternatives such as cotton, local wool, or linen. Wool was originally the main material used in America for weaving textiles, since it was obtained much more easily than cotton or flax. Most often, people used a plain weave since it was quick and easy. The Industrial Revolution brought major changes to the industry. Inventions such as the flying shuttle and the spinning jenny meant that weavers could now complete their work faster and with less help. By 1803, a Frenchman named Joseph Marie Jacquard, created the Jacquard loom. With this innovative machine, weavers could now work elaborate designs and intricate patterns when weaving fabrics. Prior to this, they were still able to create patterns in their work; however, it was a tedious process that required two people to work on a draw loom. Color was another important aspect that changed in the weaving industry. While natural pigments had been used all along for dying the cloth, by the late 1800s weavers were switching to synthetic colorants.
The beauty of weaving textiles is that while the technique is more or less similar across different regions, it is often cultural elements that influence the look and feel of the final product. Some notable examples include Navajo weaving, which makes use of very distinctive geometric patterns, and Andean, which modifies the entire structure of the woven material rather than embellishing it. In comparison, much European weaving involves adding decorative elements to finish the final woven fabric. Unlike most other cultures, Native American weaving does not involve a loom. Instead they use a method known as fingerweaving, in which the weaver manipulates the thread solely with his or her hands. The result is a colorful, patterned decorative piece that can be used as a sash, belt, or to embellish other clothes.
The following resources can be used to learn more about weaving fabrics and the history of the art form.
History of Weaving
Weaving in Culture
- An Explanation of Tapestry Weaving
- What is Jacquard Weaving?
- Native American Finger Weaving
- A Book on Hand-Loom Weaving
- The Double-Face Tablet Weave
Weaving Instructions and Tutorials
- Weaving for Beginners
- Weaving Terms and Definitions
- A Closer Look at Weaving Patterns
- The Beginner's Guide to Weaving
- Starting Your First Weaving Project
- All About Finger Weaving
Weaving for Kids
- The Kids' Guide to Weaving
- Practice Weaving with Paper
- The Plastic Straw Weaving Project
- An Introduction to Joseph-Marie Jacquard
- Weave a Paper Heart Decoration